sexta-feira, 31 de outubro de 2014

O ORÇAMENTO DE ESTADO TEM GÉNERO ?




Numa altura em que se está a discutir o Orçamento de Estado, talvez uma boa ocasião para se refletir o que é designado por GENDER BUDGETING. E ter como finalidade  responder à pergunta que é  titulo deste post - O Orçamento de Estado tem Género ? Como sugestão, o documento da imagem - da página 26 à 46, a nosso ver,  bom material de partida. De lá:

Budget is the most powerful governmental tool to plan future policies and actions. Budgets are not gender neutral: spending and revenue activities result in discriminatory effects on men and women.40 On the other hand, a gender sensitive budgetary process, i.e. the socalled ‘gender budgeting’, could be used to set concrete horizontal gender equality goals across different policy areas. Similarly, the budgetary process provides an opportunity for reflection on the success of gender equality goals.41 Thus, ‘gender budgeting’ forms an indispensible part of gender mainstreaming.
According to guidelines of different institutions and women’s rights organisations, the basic good practices of gender budgeting include the following:43 all state authorities, particularly those in charge of the budget, should be actively involved in gender budgeting; Civil society organisations and external experts should support the process by providing technical expertise and transparency; Officials involved in spending and revenue decisions should receive gender budgeting training; Gender budgeting should target all policies resulting in trade-offs between groups of individuals as well as policies that involve direct spending and revenue-making; Gender equality should be incorporated also into the audit and parliamentary discharge processes as a reflective mechanism to assess the success of gender equality targets.44 To secure the commitment and cooperation of necessary state authorities, it should be underlined that gender budgeting represents a tool for achieving good governance standards (e.g. transparency and accountability)45 as well as general macroeconomic goals (e.g. growth and efficiency).46 However, this should not result in the overshadowing of gender equality by other policy goals.
(...)
Thus, for an effective gender mainstreaming process across the EU, Member States should also follow a gender budgeting approach. Gender budgeting experiences across the Member States have been patchy (see appendix II): unsurprisingly, Member States with a strong welfare state, including the Nordic states, Germany, Austria and Belgium have been pioneers of gender budgeting, whereas in Southern European states, such as Spain and Italy, there have been a few local initiatives without a national follow-up.
Positive experiences of the Member States, particularly those of the Nordic states, could be used as a model in the design of gender budgeting at the EU level. The EU does not have the necessary competences to require the Member States to make gender budgeting a part of the national budgetary process. Incentive structures could be introduced using the Structural Funds to encourage gender budgeting at the national level. Likewise, gender budgeting could be promoted using soft cooperation mechanisms, imitating the mechanisms of the Open Method of Coordination. A gender budgeting network between the Member States could be established as a policy learning mechanism, imitating the Nordic model. (...).

E a propósito lembremos o Plano Nacional  Para a Igualdade de Género, Cidadania e Não-Discriminação 2014-2017:  na Área Estratégica 1 - Integração da Perspetiva da Igualdade de Género na Administração Pública Central e Local, a Medida 4: Promover iniciativas de orçamentos sensíveis ao género.

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